In 2019, the International Energy Agency (IEA) released Nuclear Power in a Clean Energy System, which highlights the importance of nuclear power in decarbonizing the world’s energy sector. The paper notes:
“For advanced economies, nuclear has been the biggest low-carbon source of electricity for more than 30 years, and it has played an important role in the security of energy supplies in several countries. But it now faces an uncertain future as ageing plants begin to shut down in advanced economies, partly because of policies to phase them out but also under pressure from market conditions and regulatory barriers.”
Despite the importance of nuclear power as a low-carbon source of electricity, some countries have been phasing it out, citing risks such as the 1986 Chernobyl disaster and the 2011 Fukushima disaster.
To be clear, nuclear power will face headwinds as long as the public perceives that such risks still exist. That’s why it is important to highlight technology developments that can eliminate fears of the major nuclear disasters we have seen in the past.
Nuclear Technology Continues to Advance
The first generation of nuclear power plants were built in the 1950s and 1960s and were based on light water reactor technology. These reactors use water as a coolant and neutron moderator, and require enriched uranium as fuel.
Second-generation reactors, which were developed in the 1970s and 1980s, improved on the design of first-generation reactors but still use water as a coolant and require enriched uranium fuel.
Third-generation reactors, which began to be deployed in the 1990s and 2000s, incorporate passive safety features and other design improvements, but still use water as a coolant.
Fourth-generation nuclear power refers to a new class of advanced nuclear reactors that are designed to be safer, more efficient, and more sustainable than previous generations of nuclear power plants. These reactors incorporate advanced materials, designs, and cooling systems, and are intended to be more economical, flexible, and scalable than current nuclear technology.
Compared to earlier generations of nuclear power plants, fourth-generation reactors have several advantages.
First, they are much safer, with inherent safety features that prevent the release of radioactive materials in the event of an accident or malfunction. Second, they are more efficient, with higher conversion rates of nuclear fuel to electricity. Third, they are more sustainable, with lower waste production and the ability to use nuclear waste as fuel. Finally, they are more flexible and scalable, with the potential to be used in a variety of applications and settings, including remote locations and microgrids.
Terrestrial Energy Clears Important Milestone
Terrestrial Energy is a Canadian-based company working on fourth-generation nuclear technology. The company’s Integral Molten Salt Reactor (IMSR) is a Generation IV nuclear reactor that uses molten salt as a coolant and fuel carrier.
Molten salt reactors offer a number of advantages over traditional nuclear reactors, including the ability to operate at higher temperatures, which makes them more efficient and flexible; the ability to use a variety of fuel types, including thorium; and the potential for passive safety features that could make them less vulnerable to accidents.
Last week Terrestrial Energy announced that it has achieved a major regulatory milestone with the completion of Phase 2 of the pre-licensing Vendor Design Review (VDR) for its IMSR power plant. The VDR is a comprehensive review of the IMSR design conducted by the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC), and its completion is a significant step forward in the commercial development of the IMSR.
The CNSC’s VDR of the IMSR design was a comprehensive review that covered all aspects of the reactor, including safety, security, and environmental impact. The CNSC concluded that the IMSR design met all applicable regulatory requirements, and that it could be safely and securely operated in Canada.
The completion of the VDR provides commercial confidence to proceed with licensing and construction of IMSR plants, and it opens the door to the deployment of this innovative nuclear technology to help decarbonize the global economy.
“The completion of the CNSC’s VDR is a major breakthrough for the IMSR program,” said Simon Irish, CEO of Terrestrial Energy. “This review is a testament to the hard work and dedication of our team, and it provides a clear path forward for the commercial development of the IMSR.”
The IMSR is a cost-competitive, zero-carbon energy source that is well-suited for a variety of applications, including power generation, industrial process heat, and desalination. The IMSR is also a scalable technology that can be deployed in a variety of sizes to meet the needs of different markets.
The completion of the VDR is a major step forward for the IMSR program and for the global effort to decarbonize the economy. The IMSR is a clean, safe, and efficient nuclear technology that has the potential to play a significant role in meeting the world’s growing energy needs without emitting greenhouse gases.
With this regulatory milestone achieved, Terrestrial Energy is now well-positioned to move forward with the commercialization of its IMSR technology. The company plans to build its first commercial-scale reactor in Canada, with additional projects planned for the United States and elsewhere.
In conclusion, the IMSR has the potential to provide safe, reliable, and cost-effective power, helping to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and meet the growing demand for energy around the world. The completion of Terrestrial Energy’s VDR is a major step forward for the IMSR program and for the global effort to decarbonize the economy, making it an exciting development for the nuclear industry and the future of clean energy.